Sarajevo is the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina and its largest urban, cultural, economic and transportation center, the capital of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the headquarters of the Sarajevo Canton, which has an estimated population of 688.354. The river Miljacka flows through the city and the popular picnic sight, the Spring of river Bosna is also close by.
The Olympic mountains Jahorina, Bjelasnica, Igman, Treskavica and Trebevic, especially favorite winter resorts for Sarajevo and tourists from around the world, are around city.
With several national and city theaters, museums and cultural institutions, Sarajevo is also an important place on the cultural map of this part of the European continent. Every year the city on the river Miljacka host a series of cultural festivals of international character, among which the most important are: the Sarajevo Film Festival (SFF), Sarajevo Jazz Festival, a summer cultural festival “Baščaršija Nights”, theater festival “MESS”, “Sarajevo Winter” and World television festival of oriental music.
With the arrival of the Turks in 1435 and the fall of the fortress Hodidjed, on the banks of the river Miljacka Sarajevo was founded. The founder of Sarajevo is considered to be Isa Bey Ishakovic, which in 1462 ordered the formation of the city, built the first mosque, palace, bridge and several public institutions in 1507. The city was first mentioned with its current name (the name of Saraj-ovasi, “plain around the court”). Rapid development of crafts and trade made Sarajevo a rich town, a crossroad of religions and cultures, trade routes and passengers. In the 16th century it was one of the richest cities in this part of Europe, when some of the monumental buildings were bait that today represent the architecture and civilization of that time. Then, in Sarajevo, as an endowment of the vizier Gazi Husrev-Bey, a College Kursumli-madrasa, was open which is reminiscent of universities in other major cities of Europe in 1531. Gazihusrev Bey’s mosque was builtand is the most famous building of old Sarajevo and one of the greatest religious monuments of Islamic architecture in the Balkans.
Sarajevo is a small area hosting all four major world religions, cultures and civilizations. Long-term coexistence has created a special culture and multinational spirit, which has withstood many historical challenges. Such a cosmopolitan and modern city the Olympic Committee entrusted the organization of the XIV Winter Olympic Games, which were held with great success in 1984.
Social and political changes in the former Yugoslavia led to the first political elections in 1992 where Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina was elected. President of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Alija Izetbegovic, announced a civil referendum on independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which led to the creation of an independent and sovereign state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Disagreement of the JNA military leadership and a four-membered SFRY Presidency with a majority decision of the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina, there was an outbreak of inter-ethnic conflict, creating a national paramilitary groups, and the aggression on Bosnia and Herzegovina, especially in its capital, Sarajevo. The war ended on 21 November 1995 when the Dayton Peace Agreement was signed.
Sarajevo has still preserved those values of civilization that made it a unique cosmopolitan center. A special place in the city of Sarajevo is occupied by Shahid cemetery Kovaci, the place where many children of the city were buried. At the cemetery Kovaci, among other martyrs, the first president of an independent and sovereign Bosnia and Herzegovina, Alija Izetbegovic was buried, resting beside other soldiers of the Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as he desired so.